About the study

Unfortunately many people who suffer from a head injury (also called a ‘traumatic brain injury, or ‘TBI’ for short) experience long lasting emotional problems such as irritability and anger, which can lead to aggressive behaviour. This behaviour can be extremely distressing for people with TBI and their family.


Both drug and non-drug treatments are used to manage aggression in people after a head injury. Although doctors use many drugs for this purpose, their use is often based on evidence of successful treatment of aggression in other conditions, such as autism or epilepsy. One drug that has shown promise in people with autism is an antipsychotic called risperidone. Risperidone is also used regularly to treat aggressive behavior in people who have had a head injury. However, there is currently insufficient information to know how effective risperidone is for improving irritability and aggression after head injury.


The aim of this study is to establish whether risperidone is a worthwhile treatment for people experiencing irritability and aggression following a head injury (TBI) when you balance up the possible benefits and the possible side effects.

AFTER was a clinical trial funded by the NHS National Institute for Health Research, sponsored by the Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, and managed by Imperial College London. 


AFTER stands for ‘Aggression Following TBI: Effectiveness of Risperidone’. The trial is for individuals who are experiencing irritability and aggression after a head injury, and their doctor believes that medication may help.

The study is now closed and you can read about our findings on the study results page 

​email: after@imperial.ac.uk